Consider your reaction to the following statements:
X is better than Y
X deeper than Y
X is more mature than Y
X is higher than Y
X is more evolved than Y
X is more valuable than Y
These are all statements that imply some kind of ranking or hierarchy of value between X and Y. They suggest that X in some sense holds a more senior position in that hierarchy than Y.
In my experience these type of statements make a great many modern educated people deeply uneasy especially when applied to human affairs. The suspicion is that they represent an attempt to legitimize the oppression, marginalisation or exploitation of X on Y. This reaction is very healthy as there are a great many rankings and hierarchies that have been used to justify the domination and subjugation of one group over another.
However if we reject all such ranking systems we are left with no way to build an integrated whole in any field and are left simply with a heap of isolated fragments of knowledge .
There is a way of understanding hierarchy that dismantles this danger. All the statements at the start of this Blog are legitimate if and only if: X is more inclusive than Y. Let me explain:
consider the following hierarchy:
level 1: A
level 2: A+B
level 3: A+B+C
level 4: A+B+C+D
We can say that, for example, level 3 is ‘higher’ than level 2 because it contains all the elements of level 2 (A and B) and adds something new (C). We could say that level 3 transcends and includes level 2, or that level 3 is more inclusive than level 2. A couple of examples may bring this to life:
letters, words, paragraphs, chapters, books
particles, atoms, molecules, cells, organisms
individual, family, tribe, nation, humanity
These three hierarchies follow the pattern outlined above. Each more senior level includes all the junior levels and adds something new. These types of hierarchies are known as natural hierarchies (or more technically holarchies).
Any value ranking system that does not have this pattern of transcend and include is illegitimate and is simply a cover for some form of oppression or exploitation.
This is a fundamental rule and throughout this Blog any valuing, promotion or encouragement towards one viewpoint or perspective over another should be tested against this principle.
The next post will continue this theme.